In this episode, we discuss in more detail about the individual components that will go into the IAP prototype.
- 1:17 – Summary of IAM Components
- 3:54 – Description and Design of the IAP Model
- 5:54 – Primary Benefits of IAP
- 8:11 – Electric propulsion inside the airtight container
- 11:08 – Ways to power the IAP model
- 14:47 Turbo generator applications and batteries
- 17:08 – Moving forward and getting this prototype up and running
- 20:21 – Ways you can support this project
Today we are going to discuss a Advanced propulsion technologies such IAP Which deliver the right mix of cost savings, safety and superior propulsive power to support a variety of next-generation journeys to destinations in deep space.
The IAP project will demonstrate key technologies necessary for robotic and human exploration-class solar electric transportation systems as well as highly efficient orbit transfer capabilities for commercial space operations and science missions.
IAP will be Energized by the electric powered engine, the electrically propelled system will use 10 times less propellant than a comparable, conventional chemical propulsion system, such as those used to propel the space shuttles to orbit.
Yet that reduced fuel mass will deliver robust propulsion capable of boosting robotic and crewed missions well beyond low-Earth orbit: sending exploration spacecraft to distant destinations, ferrying cargo to and from points of interest, laying the groundwork for future missions or resupplying those already underway.
Primary benefits of IAP Will be
- Electrc turbine and other parts of engine are not exposed to external propellers.
- Less potential for damage to internal drive engine from floating objectives/FODs.
- Less potential for major drive damage from running aground as with exposed propellers.
- Better maneuverability and acceleration compared to stern-drive counterparts.
Design – A shape of the container is not particularly limited. The container may be any shape suitable for housing a propulsion system such as a sphere, cylinder, or heart shape. In some embodiments, the propulsion system may be at an apex of the heart shape whereas return corridors or thrust corridors are formed by segments of the heart.
Two key technologies for the future of flight have a long history. Electric motors were invented in the 1830s, and battery-powered cars were first manufactured in the 1890s. Their descendants are found across various industries today, including in modern airplanes that already rely on electricity to power avionics, fly-by-wire, actuation and other systems, and perform tasks once done by mechanical equipment.
When we talk about electric propulsion, we’re talking about a range of propulsion architectures designed to meet the needs of specific aircraft that are using electrically driven motors to provide thrust. There is no “one-size-fits-all” or “best” solution without understanding the key customer requirements and mission profile of an aircraft.
How electric propulsion works
In contrast to propulsion systems built solely around an internal combustion engine, all-electric and hybrid-electric architectures utilize an electric motor. The motor can be the sole source of thrust or it can be used in combination with a conventional engine, by either providing another source of thrust or even a boost of power to the propulsion system during key stages of flight.
In addition to the motor, a fully-integrated electric propulsion system includes other critical components like motor controller hardware and software, gearboxes and cooling systems. This integrated system is known as an electric propulsion unit (EPU), and Honeywell and DENSO are developing state-of-the-art solutions to meet today’s and tomorrow’s needs.
2- Electric Motor for IAP
For Electric Propulsion -;
based on the orientation of magnetic flux electric machine can be devided in two type
- Radial flux motor – in this the magnetic flux is perpendicular to axis of rotation
- Axial flux motor – in this the magnetic flux is parallel to axis of rotation
Motor/Generator charging battery
Fully electric flight mode battery discharging
AXIAL FLUX MOTOR – ITS having high torque to weight ratio, which is idle for best uses.company like rolls Royce and magnex have intense research and dovelopement in progress in these motors, interestingly the first ever electric generator is doveloped by the micheal faraday was an axial flux type on this axis of rotation is parallel to flux line.
- Power Source for IAP –
- Solar power – the electric motor is powered by a solar charging unit. the solar charging unit is positioned on an outside of the sealed container and electronically wired to the electric motor.
Solar pan onto smaller solar collectors. This radiation is then wire
2-Turbo Generator: Working & Its Applications
What is a Turbo Generator?
An electric generator that is connected to the shaft of a gas or steam turbine to generate electric power is known as a turbo generator. Turbo generators with huge steam-powered mainly provide electricity all over the world. These generators are also used in steam-powered turbo-electric ships. The small turbo-generators operated through gas turbines are frequently used as APU (auxiliary power units) especially for aircraft. A Turbo generator picture is shown below.
Working Principle the turbo generator works on the Electromagnetic Induction principle. Once this turbine is connected to the electrical generator the kinetic energy (K.E) of the vapor drives in opposition to the fan-type blades in the turbine, thus the rotor in the electrical generator will rotate and generate electricity.
Turbo Generator Construction The construction of a turbogenerator can be done by using different components like stator, stator frame, stator core, stator winding, bushing, excitation system, cooling system, rotor, rotor shaft, rotor winding, retaining ring, rotor wedges, and rotor fan. The turbo generator parts are discussed below.
Turbo Generator Types
Turbo generators are available in three types which include the following.
- Air-cooled Turbo Generator
- Hydrogen-cooled Turbo Generator
- Water-cooled Turbo Generator
Air-cooled Turbo Generator
Air-cooled turbogenerators are used to provide a modern and high-quality solution for the operation of loads in different power plants with effortless and inexpensive maintenance. Air-cooled turbo generators are reliable, robust, and easily maintained. These turbo generators are very flexible to use with other turbines like steam and gas type within multi or single shaft configurations. These turbogenerators are very helpful in geothermal applications because due to some severe environmental conditions like humidity and hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere.
Hydrogen-cooled Turbo Generator
A hydrogen-cooled turbo generator uses gaseous hydrogen like a coolant. These types of turbo generators are mainly designed to provide a low-drag environment, cooling for single-shaft & combined-cycle applications in combination through steam turbines. So, this generator is most frequently used in different fields due to its high thermal & hydrogen gas properties.
The features of a Hydrogen cooled turbogenerator are long life and high performance. The hydrogen in this generator increases its performance, efficiency and provides low frictional losses. There are different models of turbo generators available in the market like optimum reliability, good quality, and high efficiency. These generators are strong, consistent, and easily maintainable.
Water-cooled Turbo Generator
Water-cooled Turbogenerators are the best solution for the maximum output ranges. These are used in large power plants due to their solid design. Water-cooled turbogenerators obey PED & ATEX regulations to provide safe operation when H2 gas is available.
All generators including water-cooled stator windings are fixed through laminated press plates for decreasing different losses and also for eliminating hotspots.
Advantages & Disadvantages
The advantages of turbo generators include the following.
- High reliability
- Control response is high
- Efficiency is high
- Long service life.
- It doesn’t depend on the temperature of the air.
- Simple to incorporate through an accessible rig.
- Simple to assemble onto the rig.
The disadvantages of turbo generators include the following.
- It includes small components
- Its maintenance is difficult due to the intricate nature of the components.
- It uses the very low speed of air to delay the performance.
- Size is big
• Battery Design for IAP Model
On satellites, batteries are used to provide power at “night”, when the satellite passes behind the Earth and is no longer illuminated by the Sun. In the “day” phase, energy is produced by solar panels, which recharge the batteries. Using the power of the Sun in this way is very important because it gives the batteries a long operating life. Batteries designed for space must meet a unique set of demands: they must be reliable, have an operating life of more than 20 years and be able to withstand extreme temperatures and radiation. They must also be strong enough to survive launch vibrations, landing impact and other physical shocks.
Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy-to-weight ratios, high open circuit voltage, low self-discharge rate, no memory effect and a slow loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics, lithium-ion batteries are growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle and aerospace applications due to their high energy density.
Pure speculation, but lithium polymer batteries in a thin pouch form factor may also be easier to cool.
NASA has issued a guidelines for uses of li-ions batteries in space –
That guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte.
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